D Sharma (1966), Epistemological negative dialectics of Indian logic — Abhāva versus Anupalabdhi, Indo-Iranian Journal, 9(4): 291-300. Mimamsa, (Sanskrit: “Reflection” or “Critical Investigation”) one of the six systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy. Da Mimamsa die Veden als ewig ansieht, folgt daraus, dass Buchstaben, Worte, Sprache, die Wortbedeutung und die Beziehung zwischen Worten und der Bedeutung gleichfalls als ewigwährend angesehen werden. Such use of analogy and comparison is, state the Indian epistemologists, a valid means of conditional knowledge, as it helps the traveller identify the new animal later. Die Prabhakara-Schule fügte dieser Ontologie noch vier Daseins-Kategorien hinzu und erkannte die Negation nicht an. In every human activity, the motivating force to perform an action is his innate longing for priti (pleasure, happiness), Seen in this light, Pūrva Mīmāṃsā is essentially ritualist (orthopraxy), placing great weight on the performance of karma or action as enjoined by the Vedas. Purva Mimamsa school believes in the complete authority of Vedas. The Mīmāṃsā school is a form of philosophical realism. It emphasizes the power of yajnas and mantras in sustaining the activities of the universe. Another common example for arthāpatti found in the texts of Mīmāṃsā and other schools of Hinduism is, that if "Devadatta is fat" and "Devadatta does not eat in the day", then the following must be true: "Devadatta eats in the night". The foundational text for the Mīmāṃsā school is the Purva Mīmāṃsā Sutras of Jaimini (ca.  Mīmāṃsā argues that the Gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. A major commentary was composed by Śābara in ca. Jaimini, Name eines großen Rishis, eines großen Heiligen und Weisen. Purva Mimamsa was a school of philosophy founded by the sage Jaimini whose central dogma was that the Vedas were Apaurusheya or authorless. Sabarswami wrote the major commentary or Bhashya on this work. 700 CE). In diesem Sutra werden die Veden als ewig und als einzige Autorität dargestellt, wahrscheinlich auch als Reaktion auf nicht-vedische Lehren wie den Buddhismus.  Anupalabdhi pramana suggests that knowing a negative, such as "there is no jug in this room" is a form of valid knowledge. Die Vedantins haben Mimamsa dann auch genannt als Purva Mimamsa, also als früheres Mimamsa.  The ancient and medieval Indian texts identify four requirements for correct perception: Indriyarthasannikarsa (direct experience by one's sensory organ(s) with the object, whatever is being studied), Avyapadesya (non-verbal; correct perception is not through hearsay, according to ancient Indian scholars, where one's sensory organ relies on accepting or rejecting someone else's perception), Avyabhicara (does not wander; correct perception does not change, nor is it the result of deception because one's sensory organ or means of observation is drifting, defective, suspect) and Vyavasayatmaka (definite; correct perception excludes judgments of doubt, either because of one's failure to observe all the details, or because one is mixing inference with observation and observing what one wants to observe, or not observing what one does not want to observe).  Abhava-pramana has been discussed in ancient Hindu texts in the context of Padārtha (पदार्थ, referent of a term). Śālikanātha’s Ṛjuvimalā (ninth century CE) is a commentary on the Bṛhatī. This means of gaining proper knowledge is either spoken or written, but through Sabda (words). , The school for some time in the Early Middle Ages exerted near-dominant influence on learned Hindu thought, and is credited as a major force contributing to the decline of Buddhism in India, but it has fallen into decline in the High Middle Ages and today is all but eclipsed by Vedanta.. No citations found. – Sabara, 2nd century Mīmānsā scholar, According to Daniel Arnold, Mīmānsā scholarship has "striking affinities" with that of William Alston, the 20th century Western philosopher, along with some notable differences. Both are based on the Vedas, and both are attempts to interpret the Vedas. the 5th or 6th century CE. , Mīmāṃsā, also romanized Mimansa or Mimamsa, means "reflection, consideration, profound thought, investigation, examination, discussion" in Sanskrit. Jh.) Mohan Lal Sandal - 1925 - American Mathematical Society. Vedanta (vĭdän`tə, –dăn`–), one of the six classical systems of Indian philosophy. geschrieben haben soll. Let us now discuss these pramânas in detail.  In all except one Hindu philosophies, this is a valid and useful means to knowledge. and the second century of the Common Era. Purva Mimamsa, „Purva“ bedeutet „vorherig“; „Mimamsa“ bedeutet „Erörterung/Reflexion“. , Mīmāṃsā scholars are referred to as Mīmāṃsākas. A Padartha is defined as that which is simultaneously Astitva (existent), Jneyatva (knowable) and Abhidheyatva (nameable). John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press. It is irrelevant whether we call Him as Pradhāna or Brahman or Vaishvānara or Shiva or God. Prabhākara (8th century CE), the originator of the second school of the Mīmāṁsā wrote his commentary Bṛhatī on the Śabara Bhāṣya. In der Prabhakara-Schule verfasste Shalikanatha Mishra (9. M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass.  Hiriyanna explains Sabda-pramana as a concept which means reliable expert testimony. This book contains almost all the important philosophical aspects of Sabda for the proper understanding of the interpretations of the great writers on the system. Sie stellt in ihrem Ursprung eine Ritualwissenschaft dar, die bemüht war, den in den Texten der Veden zerstreuten Angaben über die zu vollziehenden Zeremonien eine einheitliche Deutung zu geben, und so verbindliche Regeln sowohl für die Tat (Karma) als auch für die religiösen Pflichten aufzustellen.  This tradition is also known as Pūrva-Mīmāṃsā because of its focus on the earlier (pūrva) Vedic texts dealing with ritual actions, and similarly as Karma-Mīmāṃsā due to its focus on ritual action (karma). External perception is described as that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, while internal perception is described by this school as that of inner sense, the mind. Mimamsa and Vedanta are treated as allied systems of thought.  He must rely on others, his parent, family, friends, teachers, ancestors and kindred members of society to rapidly acquire and share knowledge and thereby enrich each other's lives. They argued that this highest good is the result of one's own ethical actions (dharma), that such actions are what the Vedic sentences contain and communicate, and therefore it important to properly interpret and understand Vedic sentences, words and meaning. While both "earlier" and "later" Mīmāṃsā investigate the aim of human action, they do so with different attitudes towards the necessity of ritual praxis. Jaimini bezog sich zwar noch auf vedische Götter, eine höchste Gottheit wurde von ihm jedoch nicht angenommen.  The Mīmānsākas subjected to a radical critique, more than two thousand years ago, states Francis Clooney, the notions such as "God," the "sacred text," the "author" and the "anthropocentric ordering of reality".. Die Veden gelten als ohne Schöpfer und ohne Autor. Denise Cush, Catherine Robinson, Michael York (Hrsg. Bibliography of Mimamsaka works. Related to Uttara Mimamsa: Purva Mimamsa, Vedantin, Vedantists. , Ancient Mīmānsā's central concern was epistemology (pramana), that is what are the reliable means to knowledge. A major commentary was composed by Śābara in ca. Purva-Mimamsa is also known as Karma Mimamsa since it deals with the Karmic actions of rituals and sacrifices. He or she is told, by someone who has been there, that in those lands you see an animal that sort of looks like a cow, grazes like a cow, but is different from a cow in such and such way. The school reached its height with Kumarila Bhatta and Prabhākara (fl. Rather, they think the Vedas are apaurusheya because the expounders of the Vedas do not remember an author for the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads, like they do remember an author for works like Yaska's Nirukta or Panini's Ashtadhyayi. Erkenntnisse werden von Kumarila als wahr angesehen, so lange die Ursache der Erkenntnis nicht fehlerhaft ist oder andere Erkenntnisse diesen widersprechen.  For the Mīmāṃsā school, dharma meant rituals and social duties, not devas, or gods, because gods existed only in name. His glorious work is Mimamsa-Sutra written around the end of the 2 nd century A.D. Mimamsa-Sutra is the largest of all the philosophical Sutras. Another name is Karma Mimamsa because it is primarily concerned with sacrifice (karman). Original texts. All new items; Books; Journal articles; Manuscripts Jaimini expounded the ideas of Mimamsa in the form of sutras. Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 16:47.  Any historic scripture with widespread social acceptance, according to Mīmānsāka, is an activity of communication (vyavaharapravrtti) and is accepted as authoritative because it is socially validated practice, unless perceptually verifiable evidence emerges that proves parts or all of it as false or harmful. The founder of the third school of the Mīmāṁsā was Murāri, whose works have not reached us. Many Indian scholars considered this pramāṇa as invalid or at best weak, because the boat may have gotten delayed or diverted. This site is intended to be an educational resource for followers of the Vedas so they may practice Dharma correctly. James Lochtefeld, "Arthapatti" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. Purva Mimamsa and Vedanta Jaimini sutras Jaimini is said to the be author of the original Mimamsa sutras dating back to 400 B.C. Rather, it held that the soul is an eternal, omnipresent, inherently active spiritual essence, and focused on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma. These six epistemically reliable means of gaining knowledge are: Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष means perception. The founder of Mimamsa is considered to be Jaimini, who lived between the fourth century B.C. M. Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDan_Arnold2008 (. , Śabda (शब्द) means relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts. The system of Mimamsa articulated by Jaimini and developed by the aforementioned commentaries is also known as Purva-Mimamsa. The Mimamsakas deal mainly with the beginning parts of the Vedas, and their foundational text is Jaimini's Purva Mimamsa Sutra (Skt. Vedānta Deśika’s Śeśvara Mīmāṁsā was an attempt to combine the views of the Mīmāṁsā and the Vedānta schools. Daniel Arnold - 2001 - Philosophy East and West 51 (1):26-53. details The Mīmāṃsāka doctrine of "svatah prāmānya" has seldom been given the serious philosophical attention it deserves. In 4.3.12, Bādarāyana again cites Jaimini as saying that the mukta Purusha attains Brahman. Es erwähnt, welche Handlungen Punyas erzeugen und was Papas erzeugt und welche Punyas man ausführen muss, um Papas zu sühnen.  Beliefs, such as those in the scriptures (Vedas), must be accepted to be true unless its opponents can demonstrate the proof of validity of their own texts or teacher(s) these opponents presume to be prima facie justified, and until these opponents can demonstrate that the scriptures they challenge are false. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share … It is based on sage Jaimini’s Mimamsa Sutras. Purva Mimamsa is generally called the Mimamsa (meaning inquiry or interpretation), and in interpreting the Vedic text discusses the doctrine of the eternity of sound identified with Brahman. Die Veden gelten für ihn als das ewige Wort, das Wissen um den Dharma bedeutet. Sabara and Kumaril Bhatta were two main interpretators. Their central purpose was an inquiry into the nature of duty or dharma. we now come to the last two systems of the philosophy of the Hindus, the Purva Mimamsa of Jaimini and the Uttara Mimamsa of Badarayana Vyasa. Jh. The most important work in the Purva Mimamsa is the Mimamsa Sutra attributed to Jaimini (fourth century B.C.).  Over time, Pūrva-Mīmāṃsā was just known as the Mīmāṃsā school, and the Uttara-Mīmāṃsā as the Vedanta school. The Prabhakara School does not accept non-perception as an independent means of knowledge. Mimamsa definition is - an orthodox Hindu philosophy concerned with the interpretation of Vedic texts and literature and comprising one part dealing with the earlier writings concerned with right practice and another part dealing with the later writings concerned with right thought —called also respectively Purva Mimamsa, Uttara Mimamsa. It debated not only "how does man ever learn or know, whatever he knows", but also whether the nature of all knowledge is inherently circular, whether those such as foundationalists who critique the validity of any "justified beliefs" and knowledge system make flawed presumptions of the very premises they critique, and how to correctly interpret and avoid incorrectly interpreting dharma texts such as the Vedas. Articles about Purva Mimamsa. His bhāṣya is the basis of all later works of Mīmāṁsā. 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