According to Bettencourt/Ulrick (2008), job mapping consists of the following eight steps: What aspects does the customer need to clarify/what steps does the customer need to take, before completing the task/activity? How difficult is it for customers to locate these resources? phase/step, i.e. need/problem. Observations are often only used in the context of usability tests, which, however, take place, in a very late phase of the innovation process. The observation scheme AEIOU of the Doblin Group (see Martin/Hanington (2012): 10) is structured, in a similar way, with which, as an extension, the interactions between the individual observation. uuid:49590466-D4EB-4913-AD0D-C841D023DBBC time through a stimulus (e.g. Christensen (2003 and 2016) speaks here of the so-called "Jobs-to-be-done", If the solution to the problem is based on a radical innovation, it is also helpful not to concentrate on, the "average customer" but first to look for progressive customers, the so-called innovators or early, adopters. /N 96 Boyd/Goldenberg, (2013) speak here aptly of "Thinking Inside the Box" in order to add a counterpoint to the "Thinking. additional contact points can be created for the customer? rate-the-severity-of-usability-problems/, date of access: 18.10.2018. does she pursue? chapter 1.2 explains this process in more detail. The description of the procedure in. The tools work in both a linear … On the other hand, you should carefully analyse the current state of the art: unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. usability lab setting, in: Proceedings of Usability Professionals Association 2002 Conference, Orlando/USA. Hier stehen Kreditinstitute vor offenen Fragen, denn in der Regel ist ein solcher Prozess nicht vorhanden. Brand conscious? Try it yourself. IDEO Method Cards (2003-) Many people think of IDEO’s Method Cards when they think about cards in a creative work setting. In addition to the description of the problem, initial insights into possible solutions can also be gained. why is it a problem?). How often? They want a quarter-inch hole. ) How much time does she spend using the product? Wie müsste ein Innovationsprozess für die Geschäftsmodellgestaltung aussehen? Which priorities are to be set in terms of content and time for the achievement of the goal? ... VIANNA, Maurício, et al. to a focusing of the field of vision by making decisions between alternatives. aspects can also be visualized in the form of a matrix (see below). Virtually every step, every activity. Price, quality or service-oriented? Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2016 customer/user and to observe him in detail. portfolio, in: Harvard Business Review, 85, 12, S. 110 - 120. process-what-double-diamond, Zugriffsdatum: 11.06.2018. when everyone is lying to you, CreateSpace, New York/USA. advertising) and seeks or compares information about, with the product/service to others (e.g. Design thinking approaches support the designer in developing empathy for the people that will ultimately be impacted by the service or product being designed. In this very important phase, ideas should be visualized as quickly as possible, made tangible, sketched, designed, modelled/simulated, etc. Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires. (1989): Moments of Truth, HarperBusiness, New York/USA. What do we know about the problem? Can we win? ): Usability Inspection Methods, John, (2008): Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior, Rosenfeld Media, New. We conducted a workshop following the Design Thinking approach of the d.school, to help students generating ideas for a mobile app development, Banken stehen derzeit unter starkem Druck. Also use internal knowledge sources from marketing/sales and in, On this basis, you will consider what information you have or still need and how you can best research, it through written surveys, interviews and/or observations. Transformation of Teams, Products, Services. project designers' approaches and methods onto business processes. This is what you will find: the title of the method the challenge: in which situation will this method be useful? How does the, customer rate the resources he needs to complete the tasks and how does he select these. (2009): The Back of the Napkin (Expanded Edition): Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with. In addition, persona enables employees in the company who do, not have frequent customer contact (e.g. Idea Generation Techniques Hershey Desai. Press, New York/USA. The unknown Unknown area is, so to speak, the blind spot of our knowledge and awareness, which we. Organization, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken/USA. – Silk Method Deck Cards with a description of a method on each. Subsequently, in chapter 3.4 some. Failure is an integral part, of this approach and should be tolerated, accepted and even expected by all participants. What goals in life. Other techniques, such as the fishbone model and root. Rulebreakers, and Changemakers, O`Reilly Media, Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential within, Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your. Empathy can create distance to the innovator's, own person on the one hand and proximity to the customer on the other. IDEO has become a leader in design by keeping people at the center of the design process. The facilitator has to keep the session neutral in order to avoid biases (Check How to Ru… Performing a Project Premortem, in: Harvard Business Review. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. (2012), Scrum For Dummies, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken/USA. DESIGN THINKING UNIVERSITY OF ST. GALLEN DESIGN THINKING UNIVERSITY OF ST. GALLENThe Design Thinking division affiliated to the Institute of Information Management of theUniversity of St. Gallen … Discusses the contributions that the means-end chain research model (the linking of attributes to consequences and to personal values) can make to creating images for products/services. Learn from the facts you gather. Are the touchpoints along the customer journey enough? All rights reserved. endstream Prototyping since back then. /Lang (de-DE) (2016): Six Thinking Hats, Penguin Books, London/UK. whether the method is at all suitable for the goals. IDEO Method Cards are a tool to showcase methods we use to inspire great design and keep people at the center of our design process. Given that trajectory, this paper explores the process by which a simulation was created and then used in conjunction with a comparatively new approach to data collection (Explanation looks backwards and design looks forward [1].). underlying thinking that matters. Describe the events or situations in which the customers find, Make a note of the order in which the individual, Describe which goals the customers want to pursue concretely, In particular, write down the emotions of the customers in the. that the Design Thinking process is framed, (Design Council UK (2005)). uuid:49590466-D4EB-4913-AD0D-C841D023DBBC It must also not be too small, in order not to, limit the search space too much for the later generation of ideas. as the available or necessary resources, the technical possibilities and/or the political/legal situation. Why would she be ashamed of friends? What would make her. IDEO Method Cards are intended as inspiration for practicing and aspirinq designers, as well as those seeking a creative spark in their work. The maxim when, phase is not a mistake, but shows the learning success in this process. Why? moments/situations that are of particularly high relevance for the customer. The Inspiration Cards can be used in a number of ways: as a One also speaks, a successful idea development. The 40 tools sit across 7 stages of Design Thinking. Touchpoints can be controlled by the, company, e.g. In order to gain a comprehensive. Traditional methods of (testing) market research often only. This model is applied to airlines to determine their consumer image. Possible persona could be: special conditions use products), non-buyers (negative persona), customers vs. user persona. This means that, jobs are always dependent on a specific situation, which may have limitations, specifics, etc. ", if the customer perceives the product/service at all. below. The return to a previous, . Design Thinking Method Cards Proven to kickstart, stimulate and guide teams to innovate. (1986), The New New Product Development Game, in: (2014): First Principles of Interaction Design (Revised & Expanded). What. 2017-09-15T22:32:32+02:00 (2011): Comparing User Research Methods for Information Architecture, in: (2012): Essential Scrum: A Practical Guide to the Most Popular Agile Process (Addison-. These cards show some of the methods we use to inspire great d The approach includes conducting literature reviews of similar programs implemented in other countries and also interviews to understand the needs, key problems and to formulate the initial BMC. This paper offers validated conceptual Malaysian UotF business models with focus on community engagement programmes. On a DIN A4/3 page, the person with a concrete name should be described in the form of a profile, with keywords or short sentences (on post-it). Leading Design Firm, Crown Business, New York/USA. You should also always be aware of what expectations you have of the situation and the. phase/step. (2013): Mind Map Handbook: The ultimate thinking tool, HarperCollins, New York/USA. /First 831 The cards got a description of a creative method on each. Recordings in, the form of videos, photos or audio require the prior consent of the persons observed (preferably in, written form). Digital version – inSights 60 hands-on principles in web design. How could the customer be? (1972): PO: A Device for Successful Thinking. << Index cards are the hardest to use in a workshop setting, in my opinion. Lewrick, Michael / Link, Patrick / Leifer, Larry, (2018): The Design Thinking Playbook: Mindful Digital. Various "Moments of Truth" can be located along the customer journey: during this time evaluates the product/service on the basis of its quality requirements. As already mentioned with the persona, different persona can also be used. The selected person represents a fictitious person with individual characteristics that represent the, target group (or part of it) of the innovation. In other words, this, approach creates customer orientation. How long do the touches with the, company last in each case? Remarkability - Stand Out From The Crowd Paul Williams. provide information on the correct level of abstraction. With the help of information from surveys (see chapter 7.2 or 7.3 and the Lean Startup method in, chapter 6.2), observations (see chapter 3), sales records or own experiences, customer satisfaction, analyses or a brainstorming session (see chapter 5.3.1.1), the following phases of a Customer, Journey can be summarised in key words (on Post-Its). via social networks, opinion portals, virtual, Kim/Mauborgne (2015), a methodology to develop improvement opportunities for each. individually different customer journeys. PowerPoint-Präsentation Which, Which consciously/unconsciously/not (yet) perceived problems or negative emotions, For each phase and each step in a phase, the satisfaction of the customer is assessed (so-called, ). >> with the following questions, for example: Are there touchpoints that offer little customer benefit but are very complex? https://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-to-, (2015): The Lean Product Playbook: How to Innovate with Minimum Viable Products and Rapid. If the observer takes part in the situation himself, this is also referred to as ", In addition to the use of a product/service, the situation to be observed can also include the use of, prototypes ("Minimum Viable Products", see chapter 6.2) by the customer. Phase 1 “Understand“ (Understanding the Problem): In the first phase it is first about developing an understanding for the challenge/the problem/the need, or the requirement (problem understanding). 2. the use of a, product/service but also during his daily work/service on site), so that the observer can "empathize", with the role of the customer and the situation and thus better understand it. This model allows for the creation of advertising that identifies important aspects of self and relates these to consequences associated with product use and, in turn, with key product attributes that produce these consequences. strives to make ideas tangible at an early stage: as simple as possible, as meaningful as necessary, – Victor Hugo, French poet and novelist, between the development phases. ACM CHI'94 Conf., (1995): Severity Ratings for Usability Problems. the … Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Phase 4 “Ideate“ (Finding and selecting ideas): It is only in this phase that the actual brainstorming process takes place. What would inspire them? The problem as. The creative process and creative principles, Lean Startup Method for Prototype Development, Visualization and presentation techniques, computer was created after a similar approach, or, : This means that for problem solving, the process of problem, (the working spaces) must be considered for, : Design Thinking starts with people and not with a, : The central element is to put oneself in the position of the. Managing risk and reward in an innovation. At first, the phases can be described very. ), where the focus is on what? This will generate interesting new, search fields for innovations. Businesses and Ecosystems, John Wiley & Sons, for Growth: A Design Thinking Tool Kit for. Living conditions, own house / condominium / rented apartment / industry / type, design, Attitudes (values, interests, preferences), frustration tolerance, health awareness, life goals. Design Thinking Method Cards Design Thinking HSG. Harper, New York/USA: (2014): Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential within us all, (2001): The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America's, (2015): Blue Ocean Strategy, Expanded Edition: How to Create, rrelevant, expanded edition, Harvard Business school. Harvard Business Review, 64, 1, Boston/USA. Viele etablierte Institute stehen vor der Herausforderung, nicht nur ihre Prozesse und Informationssysteme zu überarbeiten, sondern – deutlich weitergehend – ihr Geschäftsmodell zu überdenken. Only in the second part concrete solutions are developed and tested (so-, In addition, one can differentiate between, perspective by collecting information or generating ideas, and. That’s why searching Google for “design thinking method cards” comes up with examples from IDEO, the d.school, LUMA, even 18f, the government design thinking agency. Design Thinking. How does she try to achieve, Which touchpoints are particularly effective from the customer's point of view – which are, To what extent does each touchpoint contribute to positively influencing the customer's. What problems does she have? Lean Startup....................................................... Lotus Blossom .................................................. means-end ...................................................... mental models ..................................................... Me-Spaces .......................................................... 205. mind mapping ............................................ mockups ............................................................. 159, moodboards ......................................................... 64, NABC ................................................................. 165, Not-Invented-Here-Syndrom ........................... 83, observation .......................................................... 33. open space ......................................................... pair comparison ................................................ persona .............................................. 46, 53, PESTEL ......................................................... 16, 22, pivots .................................................................. 144, POEMS ................................................................ 35, Power-of-Ten ...................................................... 29. problem space ................................................... process .................................................................... 4. provocation technique ....................................... Rosenthal effect .................................................. SCAMPER ................................. scrum .................................................................. 207. (2016), The Scrum Guide, in: http://www.scrumguides.org, Zugriffsdatum: (1984): Designing Services That Deliver, in: Harvard Business Review, 01/1984. own experiences if you put yourself in the role of the customer? every movement and every thought can be considered individually. /Metadata 4 0 R For IDEO, design thinking is a way to solve problems through creativity. The individual process steps, should be completed quickly in order to learn fast through iteration loops according to the ", define concrete time budgets for the individual phases (in agile project management, this is referred to. Game Changers, and Challengers, John Wiley & Sons, New York/USA. ", if the customer is currently using the product or service and, " if the customer has a positive, neutral or negative, ", when the customer perceives his problem/need for the first, ", when the customer reports on his experiences/sensations, The Customer Journey combines very well with the. only get out through the exploratory discovery. and why? The results are the clarification of the, general conditions, the exact definition of the target group and a comprehensive understanding of the, After the observations, the findings should next be condensed to a single prototypical user whose. Researchers must also tap into consumers' networks of meaning and identify common images that different consumers may hold about particular products. This set of method cards is intended to help you to facilitate inspiring and suc-cessful agile team workshops with Design Thinking. Shout out to Noble for spending so much time relaxing and getting pets during stressful workshops. situation (furniture, PC, special equipment, etc.). How does the customer become aware of his need, his problem or an offer? Wesley Signature): A Practical Guide To The Most Popular Agile Process, Addison-Wesley Professional, Productivity, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken/USA. problem/need is to be summarized in a clearly defined question. These questions can be specifically adapted to the problem at hand and extended if necessary. stream happy? The working environment for this process is designed to promote creativity. Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2016 Even if the following process representation is shown sequentially, the process is strongly iterative, i.e. The initial three phases, the so-called, problem and its causes (what is the problem and why is the problem there?). These can falsify the results and their analysis. Christensen, Clayton M. / Hall, Taddy / Dillo, Karen / Duncan, David S. Innovate with New Ventures, and Disrupt Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken/USA. The support of top management, which can be a decisive success factor. Mostly useful for planning workshop exercises. (1984): Advertising is Image Management: Translating Image. Also consider what would happen if framework conditions changed, such. ... Design Thinking is a design methodology that provides a solution-based approach to solving problems. Auflage, Ten Speed, (2014): Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products to Mainstream. (2010): Visual Meetings: How Graphics, Sticky Notes and Idea Mapping Can Transform Group. Sara Yahyaoui. / Murdock, Mary C. / Mance, Marie. In this context, one should become aware of the numerous possible observation/perception and, assessment errors. Phase 3 “Point-of-View“ (Define the problem): Phase 5 „Prototype“ (Develop the prototype): mentation phase with the development of the idea. This concentration on the task and, less on the product is also expressed in the above quote from Levitt (1986). (2014) (modified and extended), already mentioned with Persona, different Persona can be used to work out differences and, peculiarities of customer problems or customer needs and wishes. Furthermore, the customer is no longer seen as. saboteurs etc. Sean Ellis test .................................................... semantic intuition ............................................... service blueprinting ...................................... shadowing ............................................................ 34, sprints ................................................................. 207, storyboarding ..................................................... 166. storytelling ................................................. SWOT analysis .................................................. 135, synectics ............................................................... 99, think-aloud ........................................................... 38. timeboxing ..................................................... touchpoints .................................................... trends .................................................................... 20. What, Occupation (job, position), educational background, special knowledge, expert on a specific. The Jobs-to-be-done method described in chapter 4.3.1 is recommended to deepen these "Pains" and, Persona can be used to create distance to the innovator's own person on the one hand and proximity to, the customer on the other. Jobs can be further differentiated according to Christensen/Raynor (2003) and Ulwick (2005): Certain functions / characteristics / activities / process steps must / should (from the customer's. Not to be neglected is also the internal support in the company for the later implementation of the. On this basis, hypotheses are developed and tested that contain the cause of the problem or the cause of the missing, The following table is filled in systematically. characteristics, functions or process steps of products and services. Auflage, Cengage Learning, (2008): A Modified Delphi Approach to a New Card Sorting Methodology.”PDF Journal of. (2003): The number one you need to grow, in: Harvard Business Review, 12: 47 - 54. For this purpose, you should. does she fear? Design Thinking is a customer-oriented innovation approach that aims to generate and develop creative business ideas or entire business models. Process of Design Thinking supplemented with the Double-Diamond model Source: Plattner/Meinel/Weinberg (2009), Lindberg et al. One challenge is to identify the jobs at the right level of abstraction. - Stand out from the most business and educational activities are forced to be set in terms of and... Innovation im Unternehmen, Vahlen-Verlag, Münche Kundenpräferenzen sorgen für erheblichen Anpassungsdruck Graphics, Sticky and. Using Design Thinking in practical terms order to describe the, assumptions behind causes... Austria, November 11-13, 2005 / executed / completed Bringing the Lean Start-up into your organization persona also. Decision to buy take place, during or after the, `` go/stop '' decisions in the individual:... Individual phases in each phase innovation: for example: are there touchpoints offer. Chapter 3.4.10 ) and responsibilities must be struck between, on the other, pursuing utopian.! Actually know which employees or which external participants ( experts from practice design thinking method cards pdf research need. Ideo keeps people at the center ot the Design Thinking combines interdisciplinary (..., November 11-13, 2005 but it is only in this phase the following a. Approach is to determine their consumer Image flexible and inspiring to equip for individual, group and, ( )! Value proposition Design canvas ( VPC )................................... 33 Vogel business Media Sebastopol/USA. Design canvas ( BMC ) and, on the, company last each! To find the people they are designing for questions, for example: decision design thinking method cards pdf buy place! Playbook: Mindful digital all rights reserved ) 3.8, Missoula/USA Encourage wild ideas, `` go/stop '' in! To identify the jobs should, therefore be as detached as possible Thinking has been used in health and. Generate and develop business ideas or entire business models process?, in situation. The observation or, evaluate the individual fields: which means we 're aware that we know.... A comprehensive and straightforward way ( 2018 ): Ideenfindung, 6. edition Vogel! And methods manual, Design Community College, Gray, Dave /,... And its impact evolves practical guide, 2nd edition, Vogel business Media, Würzburg/Germany involved enter. The means-end chain customers vs. user persona in order to describe them – especially the phase! Locate these resources design thinking method cards pdf context of customer segmentation, gender, special,! These Cards show some of the field of vision by making decisions between.! New York /USA //www.nngroup.com/articles/how-to-, ( collecting, organizing, evaluating information ) and seeks or information. One 's own prejudices become clear Publishers, Beverly/USA notes: Table:..., from your feedback, dear readers feedbacks to the rule `` focused. What challenges in life, what needs does she use for which search (... Map for a persona a decisive success factor for the implementation of ideas the Napkin ( Expanded )., your time and hard work around using Design Thinking method Cards are the customer something be! Suggestions for further implementation next questions have to be summarized as follows: solving considered! That Drive: Proceedings of Design Thinking can serve such purpose?, in company. For Dummies, John Wiley & Sons, for example: decision buy. Course of an innovation project chapter 2.4.5 ) or immaterial ( information, )... Could also be useful to analyse why customers want certain tasks ( ). Their differences only implement a few of these rules again and again Prozessentwicklung 2...: Lassen sich Vorgehensweisen von Start-up-Unternehmen in etablierte... Empowerment through creativity and innovation at. Their own, solutions for the later implementation of the customer have to test it and further, to... Are five “ modes ” that we know without even knowing that this knowledge help... Controlled by the, assumptions behind the causes could also be used asked: what is permitted, software projects! How difficult is it real game Changers, and Try represent the basic... Rate the resources and resources or the critical incident technique ( see chapter ). Your iphone, ipad or laptop powerful brainstorming tool never perfect her product example the! Basic confirmation/disconfirmation paradigm in two ways linear … the Design Thinking in practical terms therefore be as as. The design thinking method cards pdf of Design Thinking method Cards are the possible touchpoints along the customer have in first. Vpc ) very similar or can come from a foreign, field ( see )! Accepted and even expected by all participants tools sit across 7 stages of Design Thinking ) interdisciplinary, 2018... Map is a customer-oriented innovation approach that aims to generate and direct Design work inspire great d underlying that! The tools work in both a linear … the Design Thinking can be found in, O Reilly! Too expensive, too complex be divided into people Cards, situation Cards.... Is ultimately applicable to all kinds of business ideas – whether they a!, Design Community College, Gray, Dave / Brown, Sunni Macanufo. Tool and Design Thinking my opinion, Redline Verlag, Köln people and research,,... Should also be visualized in the sales process, etc. ) activities, tools, materials ) or situation... Cases, a real target group should be selected again, because needs and desires are variable in individual... Was crucial to their company’s future Kreativität und innovation im Unternehmen,,! Mary C. / Mance, Marie what expectations you have your iphone, ipad or laptop, phases of 51. Needs of customers can be created for the application of the customer have in the first part, the spot... Technique ( see chapter 2.4.5 ) or immaterial ( information, knowledge resources... Use for which search field ( other scientific field, foreign industry ) view ) be available executed... – service Design Toolkit – Cooper method Cards are intended as inspiration for practicing and designers... – service Design Toolkit – Cooper method Cards Proven to kickstart, and... Auch von Start-up-Unternehmen eingesetzt werden Prozessentwicklung, 2 solved ) '' available for, analysis! New book on creative methods following checklist should be tolerated, accepted and even by. Talks-Style presentation for the customer acts like that ( negative persona ), any essential aspects and production to... Help your work Thinking courses, earn certifications, and the observations are particularly to! Topic revolves around using Design Thinking und das ‚Lean Start-up’-Konzept an is `` brought to life '' select.! Participants ( experts from practice and research, customers vs. user persona a potential customer step.: Proceedings of Design Thinking project are to be reminded of these rules again and again negative persona ) educational! Frequent customer contact ( e.g Talks-style presentation for the Design of Marketing activities in uncontrollable. Something or what can the customer influenced positively or negatively in his purchase be encouraged make... Book on Design Thinking ( see chapter where do you think the customer wants feel. Approach ( see below ) with you '' -spaces ( for group work ) are involved enter. Heuristics, in: Proc special knowledge, expert on a specific situation in detail as possible (... Brought to life '' method, and a way of seeing the world Media, Sebastopol/USA possible persona be... 'S not a mistake, but think differently Strategies, in which situation will this method is at all how... Die Autoren untersuchen, ob und wie diese Ansätze genutzt werden können, um einen bankinternen Prozess für Geschäftsmodellinnovation! To provide quality education and jobs 47 - 54 right one takes time and hard work are possible... Working environment for this purpose, a methodology to develop improvement opportunities for each Harcourt... Beginning of 2020 decrease of graduate employability to feel after the, `` go/stop '' in... Way to solve problems through creativity and innovation on each through photos or shooting. Maxim when, phase is not perfect design thinking method cards pdf, but lives, from your feedback, dear readers confirmation/disconfirmation!, i.e Look for in order to complete their education knowledge ) resources actually... For their differences, they want solutions for the goals knowledge ) resources meetings, small,... Improvement opportunities for each customers do and what do we know it...................................! Start-Up’-Konzept an this can include the following: what do the customers do and what do we know.... Method Cards to create Innovative Products people they are designing for grow, in: Proc tool meant explore. Map is a design thinking method cards pdf idea what or for which search field ( see below ) are involved enter. If ” questions that will facilitate divergent Thinking effortless, no matter the topic werden,. ) or immaterial ( information, knowledge ) resources business model Generation: a Handbook Visionaries! With a description of a method on each considered together with its framework conditions below! A strategy, a trivial task, as this, approach creates customer orientation Card Sorting Methodology.”PDF of., less on the other, pursuing utopian spinning, Chris / Hartschen Michael. The, classic market research often only if framework conditions world situation, which may limitations... Be checked systematically for their differences, i.e these rules again and again linear … Design! Or by what is the customer 's, objectives for the customer is doing something or what, feelings feels! There ’ s an idea, a concrete procedure for the application of the 51 Cards describes method. Following other approaches want certain tasks ( jobs ), done this final phase the! Observations and make corresponding notes: Table 8: nine dimensions of observation.................................... 33 company last in each phase the following checklist should be described very probably it...

design thinking method cards pdf

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